Don't Share Data among Threads

Distribution of a task among several threads means horizontal scaling - the more computing resources (processors) the less time to work the task out. Sharing data among threads brings the need to synchronize which kills the scaling capability of the computing. How to proceed when shared data are needed?

Consider a very simple ETL system where the Extractor produces a finite sequence of numbers, the Transformer converts numbers into strings, and the Loader finally saves the string into a database. Because the database access is expensive, the Loader works in batches: first, collect data up to a limit batch size, then write the whole batch into the database. To use resources efficiently the Loader runs in multiple threads.

Simple multi-thread ETL

And here comes trouble: shared data is introduced (batch collection) and methods must be synchronized. The result is almost the same or event worse than using a single thread without synchronization.

Single thread, unsafe 1 thread, sync 2 threads, sync 4 threads, sync
51.446 ms 50.768 ms 51.083 ms 51.674 ms

Some optimization to minimize the size of the critical section are practicable, but not always. How to avoid synchronization as much as possible?

Thread Own Data

One approach is to let each thread to own its data. Such data doesn't have to be synchronized. The drawback is a design-shift of the Loader from a simple implementation to a threading-aware one:

class BatchLoaderThreadOwnData {

    private final int batchSize;
    private final JdbcTemplate jdbcTemplate;

    private boolean finished = false;

    // the object holds a map of data for each thread
    // the only one concurrent access, therefore synchronized
    private final Map<Long, ThreadOwnData> threadOwnDataMap = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();

    public void load(String result) {

        if (finished || threadOwnData().counter++ >= batchSize) {

    public void finish() {
        finished = true;
    private ThreadOwnData threadOwnData() {
        return threadOwnDataMap.computeIfAbsent(
                  id -> new ThreadOwnData(batchSize));
    // ...

The results are actually much better:

Single thread, unsafe 1 thread, own data 2 threads, own data 4 threads, own data
51.446 ms 52.129 ms 29.668 ms 20.050 ms

Instance per Thread

We can go a step further and let a tread own the whole object. This allows us to reuse the first thread-unsafe version just as with a single thread. The drawback is a complicated execution logic and the need to create new instances, which is not always possible:

// the only synchronization here 
Map<Long, BatchLoaderUnsafe> batchLoaders = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
// ...
// run in an async executor:
BatchLoaderUnsafe loader = batchLoaders.computeIfAbsent(
    id -> new BatchLoaderUnsafe(BATCH_SIZE, jdbcTemplate));
// call it on an unsynchronized thread-owned loader

The results are, as expected, comparable to the previous solution:

Single thread, unsafe 1 thread, thread own 2 threads, thread own 4 threads, thread own
51.446 ms 51.919 ms 30.051 ms 19.814 ms


In the modern world of microservices and distributed computing is scalability one of the most important attributes. Techniques like immutability are not always applicable, but synchronization must still be reduced to minimum. When not done so, the performance could be even worse when running in a single thread as threading overheads must be paid.

When it is not possible to create a new worker instance for a thread, the worker could be designed to create a new instance of data per thread. When every thread owns its data, there is no need for further synchronization.

The whole code could be found in my GitHub.

Happy threading!